Traditional recipes

A Bit of Europe, On the Bowery

A Bit of Europe, On the Bowery

Whether it’s sunny and warm, or cold and snowy outside, WineBar is the place to go to drink yourself around the world without leaving your seat.

Located along Second Avenue in New York’s Lower East Side, WineBar features an expansive outdoor seating area where enjoying a post-work glass of wine, or drinking all night long on a Saturday, seems effortless. Believe me, I’ve done it many times myself, sharing a bottle of one of their many bottles of white from France, Italy or Spain. If the weather is cold, head inside and grab a spot at one of their high-top tables and split a bottle of red and a couple of starters. There is something for everyone, and the din is neither too loud nor too soft. Just right for that second or third date.

Wine During Pregnancy: Is It OK If I Have Just a Little?

You&rsquore eight months pregnant, and it&rsquos pretty damn glorious. Your morning sickness faded ages ago, and you&rsquore not so huge that you&rsquore waddling and dealing with back pain (yet). While you&rsquore out for a much-needed Friday-night dinner with your friend, she encourages you to order a glass of wine with your meal. The baby is already &ldquofully cooked&rdquo by now, right? Besides, she drank wine when she was pregnant with all three of her kids, and they turned out great.

But you&rsquore not so sure. Your ob-gyn said absolutely not, and you&rsquod never want to do anything to harm your baby. So is drinking wine during pregnancy&mdasheven just a little bit&mdashOK or not? Here&rsquos everything we know.

L is for Latvia: Latvia Virtual Tour for Kids

Featured Latvia Book

Queen of Seagulls by Rūta Briede, Translated from the Latvian by Elīna Brasliņa

Author Read Aloud

Latvia Facts

  • The capital of Latvia is Riga.
  • The official name is the Republic of Latvia.
  • Egils Levits is the current President of Latvia.
  • Latvia is located in northern Europe on the Baltic Sea. It’s between Estonia and Lithuania.
  • Latvia borders 4 countries.
  • Latvian is the official language of Latvia.
  • The currency in Latvia is the Euro. 1 Euro

Latvia for Kids: Flag Activity

The legend goes that the red in the Latvian flag stands for blood from a wounded Latvian leader. The white is from the cloth used to wrap his wounds.

HERE is a fun printable Latvia flag coloring sheet!

Latvia Virtual Tour to a Featured Landmark

House of the Blackheads

The House of the Blackheads is a salmon pink building in Riga, Latvia. The building was originally built during the 14th century. It was built for the Brotherhood of the Blackheads, which was a group of merchants and ship owners. While it was mostly destroyed by the Germans during WWII and then the Soviets afterwards, it was rebuilt at the end of the 20th century.

While it is now a museum, the cellar has original flooring, walls, and stairs in the old storage area.

Featured Latvian Artist: Laima Vaikule

Laima Vaikule is a popular Latvian actress, singer, director, and choreographer. She was born in Cēsis, Latvia on March 31, 1954. Her parents moved to Riga when she was three.

Before Laima became involved in the arts, she studied nursing at the Vilnius Medical College. During this time, she also sang with a band and eventually became a lead singer. In the 1980s she studied acting and directing at Moscow State Institute for Theatrical Arts. In 1985, Laima Vaikule had her first hit in the Soviet Union. Some of her most famous songs are “Vernisage” and “Charlie.”

Laima has traveled to competitions and festivals across the world. She was awarded the title National Actress of Latvia for her special contribution to the music and culture of Latvia.

Featured Latvian Food: Latvian Recipes for Kids

  • Rye bread is very popular in Latvia. Be sure to eat it with either butter and cheese or ham, especially for breakfast.
  • Potato pancakes are extremely popular around Latvia. Locals often serve them with sour cream and green onions, or possibly lingonberry jam. Here’s a Latvian potato pancake recipe to make at home!
  • Beetroot soup is also very popular in Latvia, as it is in Lithuania. Latvians eat it both cold and hot. Dill is also very common in it, as it is in many other Latvian dishes. Here’s a recipe to make it at home!
  • Rye bread soup is actually a dessert! Locals make it with – you guessed it – rye bread, along with whipped cream and dried fruit. People in Latvia usually eat it cold.

Latvian Craft & Culture STEM Activity for Kids:

When pine tree resin becomes fossilized over many years, we call it amber. As much of Latvia is covered by forest, there is also a lot of amber. A lot of it washes up on the coast of the Baltic Sea!

The fossilized resin of amber is quite popular in Latvia, and they often use it in their jewelry. They sometimes even call the Baltic Sea the Amber Sea! Other areas have also become enamored with amber. (The Ancient Greeks called it “the substance of the sun.”) The amber trade route was an outward connection from the Baltics to Rome and beyond.

Some of the amber that is found is up to 40 million years old, and sometimes has bits of plant or insect fossilized within it. Today, we are going to make a fossilized amber craft. You can choose your color amber – it ranges from light yellow to dark red!

Fossilized Amber Project
Materials needed:
  1. Choose a marble. Remember, amber comes in a variety of colors! Draw a circle a bit smaller than your marble on your paper.
  2. Draw a picture inside your circle of a plant or insect. What kind of life do you think existed 40 million years ago?
  3. When you’re done drawing your picture, cut out the circle.
  4. Next, brush the decoupage on the front of your circle and stick it onto the underside of the marble so you can see the image when you look through the marble.
  5. After it is dry, do two coats of decoupage on the back of the paper.
  6. Enjoy looking at your fossilized “amber” craft! If you lived in Latvia, what would you use it for? Would you make jewelry? A coat?
Animals in Latvia

Latvia for Kids Discussion Questions

  • Is Latvia an Eastern European country or a Northern European country? Why?
  • If you had huge zeppelin hangers leftover in the middle of your city, what would you turn them into? (Riga turned them into one of the largest central markets in Europe)
  • If you were taking over a country, would you want to destroy old buildings and have people remember their heritage, or would you want to maintain them because of their historical significance?
  • What do you think Latvia’s air is like with so much forested area?
  • Latvia supposedly had the first Christmas tree ever. Does your town have any firsts?

Thanks for Taking a Virtual Visit to Latvia With Us!

We’ve loved putting together this resource to virtually visit Latvia. We’d love to hear if you do any of these activities for a homeschooling Latvia unit, or if you visit in person!

We hope to inspire curiosity and connection through exploring and learning, and we hope this guide helps you and your families. Please share any activities you do with us over on our Instagram. And we’d be delighted if you passed this Latvia for kids virtual tour and homeschooling resource along to others, as well!

An Ode to My Flip Phone

The Story Behind Stacey Abrams’s Fiction Career

The Bleak Prescience of Richard Wright

Cannadine argues in Ornamentalism that in the latter half of the nineteenth century "the British" (by which he means Britain's statesmen, policymakers, and imperial administrators) deliberately "replicated" in their empire the "deeply conservative" and "layered, ordered, hierarchical society" of Britain itself. The empire, he concludes, was "the vehicle for the extension of British social structures" across the globe. Genuinely sympathetic to tradition and aristocracy, the British, he maintains, sought to nurture, sustain, and "celebrate" native aristocracies—princes and landlords in India, tribal chiefs in western Africa and the Pacific, the khedive in Egypt, sheiks in the lands surrounding the Persian Gulf—and their concomitant traditional "Burkeian" societies and ways of life. Thus Cannadine, in what he maintains is a "new and original way" to "understand the British Empire," declares that it was "not exclusively about race or colour, but was also about class and status." He continues, in a florid manner befitting the proconsular splendor he lovingly and often wittily describes, "This in turn means that it was about antiquity and anachronism, tradition and honour, order and subordination about glory and chivalry, horses and elephants, knights and peers, processions and ceremony, plumed hats and ermine robes."

From Atlantic Unbound:

Interviews: "Setting the Record Straight" (September 9, 1999)
In an Atlantic Unbound interview, Edward Said confronts his future, his past, and his critics' accusations.

Cannadine is countering the currently favored view in academe, which is promulgated by a flatulent and often incoherent body of historical and literary scholarship known as colonial discourse theory. This scholarship, largely developed from arguments put forth by the literary theorist Edward Said in his enormously influential book Orientalism (1978), holds that, in Cannadine's words, "the British Empire was . concerned with the creation of 'otherness' on the presumption that the imperial periphery was different from, and inferior to, the imperial metropolis." But even as he shuns this academically trendy thesis, Cannadine embraces its methods, approach, and vocabulary. As has become de rigueur in scholarly studies of imperialism, Cannadine supports his argument not primarily with documents, official and otherwise, written by policymakers in London and throughout the empire, but with what the Oxford History of the British Empire, in a chapter on colonial discourse theory, calls "the [cultural] artefacts of the colonial experience." For Cannadine these include accounts of public rituals, such as durbars (elaborate and brassy British-organized ceremonial meetings of Indian princes) the medallions, cummerbunds, and befeathered topees that adorned both colonial officials and their native ruling partners and the honors, awards, and titles of byzantine complexity which the British bestowed on those partners.

Faddish, inelegant—and, worse, imprecise—academic jargon litters his book: "sacrilized," "privileging," "construct," "analogized" twice he even gives us "analogized back." Most egregious is Cannadine's repeated use of "about," as in the passage quoted above. What does he mean when he asserts that the empire itself, or a method of rule, was "about" this and that? Is he maintaining that these were motivating forces? ("Horses" can't be a motivating force. Can "class"?) His dependence on this word often seems to lead Cannadine to confound flummery and policy, and also ends and means. To argue that the British used ornamental trappings as an instrument of rule is one thing but to assert that, guided by what he calls their "Burkeian wisdoms and customary conservative modes," British statesmen and imperial administrators ran their empire as a sort of Colonial Williamsburg writ large, for the purpose of "safeguarding the traditional social order and preserving the traditional way of life" of the peoples they ruled, is quite another.

Traditional historians, even those who have argued that ideas deeply influenced imperial policy, have nevertheless discerned more fundamental and less abstract motives underlying that policy. Stokes, for example, saw that beneath the notions of the philosophers and imperial administrators Thomas Macaulay and James Mill regarding how to rule the Subcontinent, "the tide of British policy in India moved in the direction set by the development of the British economy." In a book ostensibly examining "how the British saw their empire," it is astonishing to find not a single reference to British anxieties regarding the nation's economic vitality or the changing European and global balance of power. Even Benjamin Disraeli, who secured for Queen Victoria the title Empress of India, and who largely invented the image of a romantic, "ornamental" empire, made clear that one of his primary purposes in promoting his vision of Britain as an imperial state was to enhance its position among the great powers.

In fact, the topics Cannadine addresses in Ornamentalism are a good deal less, and also a good deal more, complicated than he would have them. The obvious danger in concentrating on cultural artifacts rather than prosaic documents is that the trappings of power and rule become confused with the realities. The sort of ornaments on which Cannadine builds his argument were, after all, dismissed at the time as nothing more than (in the words of Wilfrid Scawen Blunt) "Dizzy's suit of imperial spangles." Disraeli himself saw the "amplification of titles," which Cannadine describes in loving detail, not as a profoundly conservative expression of Britain's love of hierarchy and admiration for the native aristocracies—as Cannadine insists—but merely as a flamboyant sop: "Orientals," he condescendingly observed, attach "enormous value to very slight distinctions." And Lord Lytton, the conservative viceroy whose elaborately choreographed durbar Cannadine interprets as Britain's homage to India's deeply rooted "feudal order" and to the princes who were both its "expression" and its "apogee," explained the ornateness of that ceremony in pragmatic, rather disdainful terms: "The further East you go, the greater becomes the importance of a bit of bunting."

Cannadine's elevation of expediency to principle and, consequently, his conflation of means and ends is nowhere clearer than in his assessment of "indirect rule"—Britain's regular (but far from exclusive) practice of governing or influencing societies and economies in Africa and Asia through, or in cooperation with, local elites. He explains this method thus:

Choosing these local rulers as partners, he maintains, was "about [that word again] admiration rather than condescension . so as to let tradition thrive and hierarchy flourish."

This is too elaborate. One doesn't have to be imbued with a love of tradition and hierarchy to recognize that it is usually best to "negotiat[e] power" with those who possess it. Nearly every empire in history has when possible maintained and worked through local hierarchies, because that is the commonsense way to run such an enterprise with a minimum of disturbance and expense. In Uganda during the 1890s, for example, twenty-five British officials asserted authority over three million people absent collaboration with a local elite, in this case the Ganda aristocracy, a mere handful of British administrators could never have governed a tropical possession. Far from feeling a sentimental commitment to traditional elites and ways of life, British policymakers concerned with Africa (where indirect rule was most fully put into practice) would have often preferred to overthrow those elites, who were opposed to the modernization that would have been in Britain's economic (and not infrequently moral) interest to effect, had this not been too expensive and dangerous. Moreover, although pragmatism often dictated that the British collaborate with indigenous elites, the British evinced not the sentimental attachment to local aristocrats that Cannadine sees but, usually, condescension and contempt toward what were often regarded as puppet regimes. The British viewed Egyptian aristocrats, for example, as brutal and ineffectual. And although Cannadine characterizes Britain's "attachment" to Egypt's khedive as "patrician, romantic and escapist," and asserts that the British saw him as one of those "traditional rulers [who] should be sustained and supported," the British in fact ensured that they, through Lord Cromer, the British consul-general and agent in Egypt, controlled the Egyptian state. Their attitude toward the khedive, whom they regarded as a corrupt and incompetent figurehead, was anything but romantic.

But if the indirect methods and ornaments of British imperial rule can be explained in more straightforward and workaday terms than Cannadine suggests, the problems and dilemmas that confronted Britain in its attempts to govern, alter, and stabilize foreign societies were far more complex than he allows. Take his thesis that Britain's was a conservative society, and that the empire was therefore a "traditional enterprise," "built around the principles of replicating and supporting a hierarchical social structure modelled on . Britain itself." For most of the nineteenth century Britain's individualist, competitive, industrial society and economy were regarded as the most innovative, progressive, and dynamic on earth—Britain was "the new world of the old world," as one foreign observer put it. Mid-Victorian Britons saw themselves as agents of a global liberal awakening. And, indisputably, throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries British worldwide expansion—direct and indirect, formal and informal—was an astonishingly efficient and pitiless agent of "social revolution," as none other than Karl Marx recognized in 1853: the spread of Britain's technology, commerce, and industry its values, religion, and laws its administrative and fiscal standards of order and efficiency, were responsible for "breaking up the native communities . uprooting the native industry, and . levelling all that was great and elevated in the native society."

To be sure, this process is too plain for Cannadine to ignore, and he dexterously anticipates his critics by acknowledging it. But, exasperatingly, although he notes some of the realities that vitiate his overall argument, he makes no attempt to reconcile his thesis to them, save to assert that this process was among the "unintended consequences" of imperialism—suggesting that the British, in their energetic efforts to "let tradition thrive," were blind to it. They were not. Even, for instance, James Fitzjames Stephen, a high official in the government of India and one of the most influential voices on Indian affairs in the late nineteenth century (and the future uncle of Virginia Woolf), who opposed schemes aimed at the rapid and wholesale liberalization of Indian society, nevertheless recognized that debate about the desirability of interfering with Indian social habits and religion was largely moot, since the very fact of British rule would engender a social revolution: "The establishment of a system of law which regulates the most important part of the daily life of the people constitutes in itself a moral conquest more striking, more durable, and far more solid, than the physical conquest which rendered it possible." And Sir Alfred Lyall, who, Cannadine incorrectly suggests, cherished Indian society as "Burkeian," "organic," and "an analogue to" Britain's "own carefully ranked domestic status hierarchy," actually clearly understood—and applauded—the fact that British civilization acted on Indian society as a "dissolving force."

To assess Cannadine's book it is essential to understand that the British considered India the indispensable source of their prestige, power, and wealth. Indeed, a very convincing case can be made that the imperative to secure the routes to India largely determined British policy toward Africa, the Middle East, the rest of Asia, and even Europe. India was, to borrow a term dear to the imperialists, the kindergarten of the tropical empire: ideas about the modernization and anglicization of foreign societies and about the universality and malleability of human nature (no less than the methods of rule and administrative techniques) developed there were applied from Cape Town to Cairo and from Fiji to Jamaica.

So Cannadine, rightly, makes India the focal point of his argument, and with its castes and princes, its landlords and peasants, and its viceregal glitter, it is by far his richest seam. But he mines it selectively. By beginning his interpretation of "how the British saw their empire" only after the Mutiny of 1857, and in failing to account for the Mutiny's impact, Cannadine fundamentally misinterprets the motives and methods behind imperial policy and administration. If, as he argues, the British saw India as "replicating and reinforcing the layered, time-hallowed social order of the metropolis," then we would expect that the Raj in, say, 1828 was more protective and admiring of tradition and hierarchy than it was in, say, 1898, because Britain itself became far less hierarchical and more liberal over time. (The passage of the Reform Bills of 1832 and 1867, by radically expanding the franchise, both fostered and manifested a democratic, anti-hierarchical ethos.) But exactly the opposite is true, as Cannadine knows. Indeed, only by removing his discussion of the Raj from its historical context, and starting in 1857, can he make the facts of British rule in India conform with any plausibility to his general thesis (and even that's a stretch) that the British "rejected the . view that their overseas rule should bring with it improvement and reform, modernization and progress" and his specific assertion that the British in India "always" sought "the reinforcement and preservation of tradition and hierarchy."

In the first half of the century the Raj was a radical enterprise, not a conservative one. The history of Britain's rule in India crystallized the great question that shaped administration and institutions throughout the non-English-speaking empire: Was it better to preserve indigenous institutions to promote stability, or to anglicize those societies under British rule to modernize them? This debate was far more a reflection of Britons' changing ideas about the extent to which foreign societies could be transformed by British law, education, and religion than it was about any intrinsic desire to preserve aristocracies and celebrate tradition. To be sure, this question had a strong economic basis. Until the end of the eighteenth century the purpose of British dominion in India was to ensure revenue, and expediency and thrift dictated non-interference in native customs, laws, and institutions. With the Industrial Revolution, however, the British came to see India, with its population in the hundreds of millions, as a potentially vast market for their goods. This called for what British reformers of India termed the "assimilation" of India to the West as Macaulay, then a key administrator in that country, explained, "To trade with civilised men is infinitely more profitable than to govern savages." But the Victorian liberal and progressive cast of mind, coupled with the evangelical enthusiasm often associated with it, also determined the policy of assimilation. Both liberals and evangelicals believed in the power of ideas and education to transform human nature, and both set about with zeal and confidence to engender what amounted to a revolution—an endeavor that attracted some of the finest and most imaginative minds of mid-nineteenth-century Britain, among them Macaulay, his brother-in-law Charles Edward Trevelyan, and James and John Stuart Mill.

The "regeneration of India," as British reformers repeatedly called their project, encompassed nearly every aspect of Indian life. Among other social and humanitarian measures, they abolished female infanticide, human sacrifice, and suttee imposed legislation permitting the education of women and allowing Hindu women to remarry eliminated caste marks among sepoys and instituted the concept of equality before the law, regardless of caste. All these reforms threatened the very elites and practices that an imperial power aiming to "let tradition thrive" would presumably have preserved.

But most obviously contradicting Cannadine's thesis are those parts of the reformers' program that attacked wholesale and directly the "feudal" and aristocratic aspects of Indian life. Macaulay's system for Western education in India was, the reforming Governor-General Lord Bentinck wrote in 1834, the "panacea for the regeneration of India." Its purpose was avowedly anti-hierarchical: to train a Western-oriented middle class to replace India's traditional leaders. British educational reform created a new social class, "Indian in colour and blood, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect," as Macaulay wrote.

And far from displaying a sentimental attachment to the Indian aristocracy, British reformers, inspired by a Benthamite egalitarianism, sought to destroy it. They dispossessed and suppressed what they regarded as the parasitic landlord class and granted proprietorship to the peasantry, basing their plans for the "regeneration" of India on a newly prosperous class of small farmers as agents of social progress. British reformers focused their revolutionary zeal even more intensely on the Indian princes whose states accounted for nearly a quarter of the Subcontinent. The arbitrary rule and misgovernment of the princes so vexed reformers' notions of justice and efficiency that the Raj aimed at, in the words of Governor-General Lord Dalhousie, "getting rid of those petty intervening principalities." By the 1850s, then, Britain had found its greatest support among Western-educated Indians who had discarded traditional customs and who opposed the traditional Indian elites, and it assumed that it could count on the loyalty of a peasantry it had built up at the expense of the great landlords and whose support and affection it had assiduously cultivated. Britain knew that its fiercest opposition lay in the Brahmin challenged by a new educational system, in the aristocrat deprived of his ancestral lands, in the prince shorn of his state, and in the unemployed courtly retainer. Altogether, this situation is hard to reconcile with Cannadine's assertion that the Raj "always" sought "the reinforcement and preservation of tradition and hierarchy."

Of course, the reformers' project in India was shattered by the fourteen months of ferocious fighting and reciprocal massacres during the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Many local factors sparked the rebellion, but it was primarily a reactionary movement that drew its leadership and greatest support from the traditional, hierarchical elements in Indian society—above all the dispossessed princes and landlords—that had suffered most under British rule. No event, not even the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, more profoundly shook the mid-Victorian mind than the Indian Mutiny. It destroyed the confident, careless idealism of Victorian liberals. Fifty years later the Duke of Argyll recalled that upon first hearing news of the revolt, he recognized that "all our flowers had lost their glory" and Charles Kingsley despaired at the time that owing to the Mutiny, "I feel as if I could dogmatise no more"—an extraordinary concession for a Victorian. The Mutiny transformed the British approach to India and reshaped the character and priorities of British rule throughout the non-European empire. It embittered the British and permanently soured the imperial project. In their minds they had shown India the path toward progress and had been bloodily rebuffed. The very peasantry they had sought to liberate had allied itself in the rebellion with its former oppressors, the landlords. The chivalry of the Raj "was that of Robin Hood, who is said to have robbed the wealthy and to have given to the poor," Lord Ellenborough, a former governor-general, noted with dismay. "Robin Hood, however, managed to secure the favour of those to whom he gave his loot. We managed to make them as hostile as those we plundered." And the British reluctantly concluded that the liberal goals for which they had striven in India were pointless in this incorrigibly alien and hidebound society. Having learned this apparent lesson regarding the limits of social engineering, the Raj abruptly retreated from its high-flown aims and determined that if it was to hold on to India, it must conciliate those who had shown they still commanded the people's loyalty: the great landlords and the princes, "however tyrannical they may be," as Lytton argued unhappily.

To Cannadine, this policy, so completely at odds with the methods and goals of pre-Mutiny rule, demonstrates that the Raj "regarded the established order much more favorably . as something that ought to be promoted and preserved," as something "to cherish," and that the princes and the aristocracy "were no longer reviled . but acclaimed as familiar and traditional." But it's impossible to survey the papers of policymakers or the historiography on this subject without being struck repeatedly by the distaste and resignation with which the British lapsed into a policy dictated by what they saw as political necessity. The argument of an agent of the Punjab government in 1860—that radical, Westernizing reform would not buy "political security," and that despite their oppression of "the people," the aristocrats had to be appeased, because they "exercise great influence," and must be made to "constitute a strong support to the existing Government"—was echoed by senior imperial officials. And some officials failed to be swayed even by arguments of expedience: Sir John Strachey, the most powerful force in the Indian Civil Service and the most trusted adviser of two viceroys, was so contemptuous of the Indian aristocrats and princes that he never forsook his opposition to their being cultivated as supporters.

By removing from their hard-headed political context the ceremonies and titles intended to attach the "influential classes" more firmly to the Raj, Cannadine again confuses pragmatism with ideology and by focusing on the ornaments of empire, he misapprehends the nature of the conservatism that informed British imperial rule from the Mutiny well into the twentieth century. When the Mutiny was put down, the goal of the Raj—and of British rule throughout the dominions of conquest—changed from what was by then regarded as the lofty and risky aim of rapid political and cultural transformation to the safer and more sensible goal of efficient administration and material improvement. Because British-imposed liberal reform had apparently contributed to the revolt, officials in London decided there was no point in offering to foreign peoples that which they didn't want. The Raj's policy of regeneration had been "well inspired" and its "principles right," the British official Charles Raikes concluded, but the Mutiny had exposed "the fatal error of attempting to force the policy of Europe on the people of Asia."

Paradoxically, as British rule became less liberal, it became in many ways more tolerant. The Queen's proclamation of 1858, in response to the Mutiny, attempted to appease Indians by disclaiming "the right and the desire to impose Our convictions on any of Our subjects." Those convictions included not only Christianity but also parliamentary democracy. Macaulay's intolerance of Indian culture had been matched by his hope that Indians could be anglicized and hence trained to rule themselves. But the new ethos held that, as the British socialist leader Ramsay MacDonald asserted in 1898, parliamentary institutions "can no more be carried to India by Englishmen . than they can carry ice in their luggage." Rather than directly aiming to transform Indians or Egyptians into Englishmen, this new philosophy held that the best that British rule could provide was a permanent guardianship, an honest, unsympathetic, and unattractive officialism of political stability, solid finances, severe justice, even-handed taxation, and better irrigation ("somewhat grim presents for one people to make to another," Stephen acknowledged). The workaday and practical mantra of this new outlook was good government, rather than self-government. This, not ornamentalism, was the ethos of the empire in what Cannadine calls its "heyday," from the Mutiny to 1914. Even the great "ornamentalist" viceroy, Lord Curzon, declared that "efficiency" was "our gospel, the keynote of our administration." This illiberal vision of imperial rule aimed for sound government by a handful of foreigners in service to what Curzon called "the patient, humble, silent millions." Melding with the public school celebration of stoic duty, this vision made of imperial rule not a glittering endeavor but a stern task in which to persevere, a service that its recipients would inevitably meet with sullen rejection. Imbued with this new ethos, the British embraced their mundane chores and felt a defiant pride in being unloved by their subjects. Rudyard Kipling wrote this philosophy's most un-ornamental anthem:

But even as the cold vision of the financier and the administrator replaced the heady optimism of the political philosopher, this new ethos—although it held that for reasons of political safety, foreign rule must be less obtrusive—hardly embraced tradition and a vision of organic, conservative native societies, as Cannadine would have it. In fact, those guided by this ethos put faith in Lyall's point that Britain's rule in itself would act as a "dissolving force." Britain's dominion, bringing with it nothing more stirring than public works and an obsessive pursuit of "sound finances," would slowly ("Ah, slowly!" Kipling lamented) but inexorably effect a revolution by disintegrating customs and mores. Cannadine writes of the "cult" of the "timeless" "Burkeian" Indian village "celebrated" by and "intrinsically appealing to the British" but Stephen allowed that the rule of law was breaking down the traditional village communities, and looked upon that result with enormous satisfaction. And even the high Indian official and legal anthropologist Henry Maine, whom Cannadine holds up as a celebrant of traditional Indian life, actually looked forward to a prolonged period of British rule that would free rural India from the constraints of tradition.

Cannadine rightly argues that recent scholarly imperial history has overemphasized the "racism" of British policymakers. Certainly most British officials were racist by our enlightened standards, but making the study of history a prosecutorial endeavor obfuscates far more than it illuminates. And his plea that the history of the British Empire be more fully integrated into the history of Britain itself than has recently been done should be attended to by this generation of scholars. However, in writing a short but sweeping book "concerned with recovering the world view . of those who dominated and ruled the empire," Cannadine should have more closely followed the injunction of the most brilliant dissectors of the "official mind" of imperialism, Robinson and Gallagher: "We must turn from the sophistications of social analysis to the humbler tasks of chronology. We must learn the grammar of the policy-makers and construe their texts."

Cooks at Home: Audrey Landers

Between flights to Germany, New York, and Miami, Audrey Landers unwinds in her Osprey kitchen, whipping up holiday feasts for her mother, husband, and twin teenage sons.

“I’m all over the world on a regular basis, so coming back to normal life is the best part,” Landers says. “I’m a little bit of a ‘cookaholic.’ I think cooking is creative and relaxing, and I’ve always liked being at home and entertaining.”

Entertaining is Landers’ MO, both at home and onscreen. Best known for her roles as Afton Cooper on TV’s Dallas and as Val in A Chorus Line (the movie), Landers was a household name in the 1980s and 1990s. Now a bona fide Renaissance woman, she is an actress, singer, composer, producer, director, and fashion entrepreneur who travels internationally every six weeks.

Family is her anchor, and the Landers family—19-year-old Daniel and Adam (at the University of Miami and Duke University, respectively) Audrey’s mother, Ruth and her husband, Donald Berkowitz—adore their intimate hours around the dinner table.

“Traditionally, our family has been the party house for Halloween, Thanksgiving, and the Super Bowl,” Audrey Landers says. “Growing up, we always had tons of kids over and there was food for everyone. I learned from the best, my mother. Now she and I have to divvy up the holiday events because she’s still an amazing cook and hostess.”

Ruth Landers is also an amazing manager, having guided her daughter’s pursuits for decades. In true family fashion, Audrey Landers now oversees the career of her son Daniel. A singer-songwriter in his own right, Daniel performed in Europe on The X Factor and ascended to heartthrob status abroad.

Together, Audrey and Ruth Landers created the Landers STAR Collection—a line of affordable clothing and accessories that is often featured on QVC in the UK, USA, Italy, Canada, and Germany.

Audrey Landers is currently teaching a master class on the music and entertainment business at the University of Miami—a gig for which she travels once a month. She heads to New York to collaborate with her fashion design group, and does Dallas promotions (there has been a burgeoning Facebook campaign to bring Audrey Landers back to the reprised show, and she has confirmed she will return in January). Audrey and Daniel Landers are even recording an album together of songs Afton Cooper sang on the show.

“When I’m home, going to farmers’ markets and cooking vegetarian food is very therapeutic for me,” Audrey Landers says. “It brings me back to reality, and to what’s most important: my family.”

Real Embarrassing Sex Stories from Reddit That Will Make You Cringe

While it’s true that sex can absolutely get better with age, we never entirely outgrow those deeply awkward, uncomfortable and bumbling moments in intimacy just because we’ve gained a bit more experience. Add the complications of keeping your sex life exciting, healthy and fun as you grow together, start a family and deal with increasingly busy schedules and there’s plenty of room for more and more cringe to come beyond the awkward firsts.

Digging into the most prolific bastion of cringe and discomfort, Reddit, we found a few deeply uncomfortable sex stories that show just how persistent cringe-y, awkward sex moments can be throughout your lives.

Early morning visitors with questions

&ldquoOne time the wife and I are getting it on first thing in the morning. We are under the covers, and it&rsquos a good thing, because my three-year-old son snuck into the room. We didn&rsquot even notice until he quickly jumped onto the bed and jumps on my back. He looked over my shoulder at my wife and says &lsquoWhat are ya&rsquoll doing?&rsquo Well, that killed the mood real quick.&rdquo

Midday visitors with heavy questions

“My husband works out of town. He is gone for two weeks and comes home for a week. He is definitely “ready to go” when he gets home. So the day he comes home we’re having middle of the day sex and he’s doing me doggy style. I have an ample ass so there is that wonderful slapping noise as he’s thrusting. My three-year-old who was down stairs comes up and starts knocking on our bedroom door.

She says ‘what’s going on in there? Mom are you ok? Is Dad hitting you?’ My husband kept going like a champ but I was laughing so hard. Super embarrassing. This is why we usually wait until the kids go to bed. Also my husband does not hit me. I don’t know where that came from in her mind.”

Baffling sex injuries

“He put his hand under my back to lift me up for a position change mid-through and he ended up popping out one of my ribs. To this day it is the worst pain I have ever experienced.”

Heart attacks & fart attacks

“Two stories, both including my wife.

1: I had a heart attack while having sex with my (then girlfriend) wife for the very first time. She thought I finished in her and got extremely mad.

2: years later, she was on top of me while I was on my back and I said something stupid and she started laughing. She started laughing so hard she farted… while I was inside her… which made her laugh even harder and she peed all over me… makes for a funny memory.”

Some anatomy lessons come later than others

“He fingered my bellybutton. I can only assume he thought it was my clit, but how?

Edit: Yeah, yeah, it&rsquos an erogenous zone for some people, but I&rsquom pretty damn sure he thought it was my clit because when he finally touched my actual clit he was surprised. Yes, I communicated. No, he wasn&rsquot even close to finishing me off or close enough to be able to try to.”

A case against grown-up slumber parties

“We were having sex in the dark & I went to get on top but misjudged how close we were to the edge of the bed.

I ended up falling off the bed, dragging him down with me & onto some friends who were sleeping on the floor.”

A version of this story was published February 2020.

Before you go, check out our favorite porn sites for women:

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Enemy Camp - David Hill

Vincent O'Sullivan covered the topic in his play 'Shuriken' over a decade ago. The 'Featherston Incident' has become known as one of the most shameful events in New Zealand's WWII history. Up to 600 Japanese prisoners were held there from 1943 to the end of the war, the prisoners a mix of civilians, soldiers and sailors captured or committed under the War Act.

Hill tells the story of the mutiny of a number of Japanese officers who try to comit Hara Kiri to protect their honor after capture and instead, are slaughtered by frightened, trigger happy guards, stirred up by propaganda and nativity.

The story is narrated, in a diary format, by school boy Ewen, whose dad works at the camp and was a a soldier in Greece. His humanitarian stance throughout the story a surprising highlight.
Ewen's mates are Clarry and Barry Morris. Clarry suffers from polio. The boys are taught Japanese by Ito, a Japanese officer. From him they learn all about the Japanese camp experience from their point of view - “for us to be prisoner is to be dead person”.

Add to that pressure from American troops seeking intel about Japanese troop movements in the Pacific, the fierce loyalty of the Japanese warriors and their intense pride and hostile reactions from those who have fought the Japanese and been tortured and you have a mixture primed for conflict.

This is a brilliantly written book. Short, punchy. A good size for students and adults to digest. I zoomed through it on a week of train commutes. And the whole account of this tender is sensitively done. It's clear that the boys are the eyes for the reader, but they can't interfere. They are the impartial camera. A very readable novel.

  1. Line a 7x9 dish with cling film. (you can use any other similar-sized dish).
  2. Cover the base of the dish with a layer of semi-sweet tea biscuits.
  3. Fill a mug with hot water, dissolve a teaspoon of instant coffee and add a shot of whiskey to taste. (you can omit the whiskey or use another liquor of your choice.)
  4. Sprinkle the hot coffee over the biscuits until they are wet but not soaked.
  5. In another container, whisk the cream with the chocolate hazelnut spread.
  6. Cover the wet biscuits with a layer of chocolate cream.
  7. Line up another layer of biscuits and repeat steps 4𠄶 for a few times and finish off with the layer of chocolate.
  8. Sprinkle the top layer with generous amounts of chopped hazelnuts and chocolate shavings.
  9. Cover the dish with cling film or aluminum foil and allow to set in the fridge for at least 4 hours.
  10. When set, use the cling film to help you take it gently out of the dish. Cut into squares and serve cold.

Russian Ballet

Russian ballet is a form of ballet characteristic of or originating from Russia The original purpose of the ballet in Russia was to entertain the royal court. In the early 19th century, the theaters were opened up to anyone who could afford a ticket. There was a seating section called a rayok, or 'paradise gallery', that was comprised of simple wooden benches. This allowed non-wealthy people access to the ballet, because tickets in this section were inexpensive. The first ballet company was the Imperial School of Ballet in St. Petersburg in the 1740s. Today, the Kirov Ballet company (now known as the Mariinskey Ballet) and the Bol'shoy company are two world-renowned Russian ballet companies that tour the world. There are several methods of ballet in Russian ballet. The most widely used in the Vaganova method.

Unit 5 - Irving Berlin

IRVING BERLIN - I bet you thought he was German, didn’t you?

I just wanted to share some info on my favorite Russian composer and it seemed like the right time of year since he won an Academy Award in 1942 for “White Christmas”.

Irvin Berlin also composed “God Bless America” and here is the rest of the story. Nationality: Russian.

Source: Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002.

The most prolific of all American composers, Irving Berlin created over one thousand songs, nineteen stage scores, and eighteen film scores.

Called "the last of the troubadours" because of his simple melodies and warmhearted lyrics, Berlin forged his long and successful composing career from a musical style that was largely patriotic and sentimental.

"If some of [my] songs are corny," the artist once explained to Abel Green of Variety, "then it's because they're simple, and all I know is that some of the corniest and simplest songs have lasted."

Berlin began his musical career at age eight when his father died and the lad took to the streets to help support his family.

One of his first jobs was that of guide to Blind Sol, a singing beggar in New York City's Bowery.

From there, Berlin began to sing at popular cafes in the neighborhood, waiting on tables and learning to pick out tunes on the piano.

In 1907 the composer published his first song, "Marie From Sunny Italy," with Nick Nicholson, a pianist at the cafe.

Berlin also altered his name at that time.

In 1909 Berlin's attempts as lyricist captured the attention of music publisher Ted Snyder, who hired the young composer for twenty-five dollars a week.

While in Snyder's employ, Berlin continued to write his own songs, and in 1911 "Alexander's Ragtime Band" was published and made him an international celebrity.

By popularizing ragtime and its accompanying dance style, Berlin was one of the first American artists to showcase jazz and make it acceptable.

Within the next few years, the composer created a number of other "rags" and came to be identified in the public mind with all things ragtime.

Berlin was also a successful performer in vaudeville before World War I, first appearing on Broadway in "Up and Down Broadway" in 1910.

The artist introduced many of his own compositions on the stage, but Berlin was generally more interested in writing music than in performing it.

He contributed songs to many Broadway musicals, including the unofficial theme for all the Ziegfeld spectacles, "A Pretty Girl Is Like a Melody."

In 1914 he wrote his first complete musical score, Watch Your Step.

With the onset of World War I, Berlin was drafted into the army, where he used his musical abilities to raise money for a service center at Camp Upton.

The composer's "Yip Yip Yaphank," an all-soldier show, raised over $150,000 from its Broadway run in 1918.

After the war, Berlin returned to New York City and formed the Irving Berlin Music Company, a music publishing firm.

Shortly thereafter, the composer erected the Music Box Theatre in 1921 in New York City and used it for several years to showcase his musical creations.

Yet by 1934, the West Coast and its movie industry had begun to attract the Broadway veteran, who wrote the film score for Top Hat,starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers.

Berlin also contributed individual songs to numerous movies, including Puttin' on the Ritz and Sayonara.

At the beginning of World War II, Berlin's sense of patriotism prompted him to create another all-soldier show, "This Is the Army," which raised $10 million for the Army Emergency Relief fund.

Before that, in 1939, Berlin's patriotic and philanthropic inclinations had moved him to allocate all royalties from his popular "God Bless America" to the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts of America.

In addition, Berlin composed songs for the Army Ordnance Department ("Arms for the Love of America") and the Treasury Department ("Any Bonds Today?"), with profits going to each bureau.

In 1954 Berlin attempted to retire, but returned to Broadway in 1962 with a final stage score, "Mr. President."

After the show's long run, the composer re-retired to his home in upstate New York, where he golfed, fished, painted, and, as he told Newsweek, "tinker[ed] at the piano" until his death in 1989.

Among his career honors are an Academy Award, a Tony, and a Congressional Gold Medal of Honor.

Family: Birth-given name, Israel Baline

born May 11, 1888, in Temum, Russia
came to the United States, 1893, naturalized citizen
died September 22, 1989, in New York, NY

son of Moses (a cantor and shochet [meat/poultry certifier]) and Leah (Lipkin) Baline

married Dorothy Goetz, February, 1913 (died July 17, 1913)

married Ellin Mackay, January 4, 1926

children: Mary Ellin (Mrs. Marvin Barrett), Linda (Mrs. Edouard Emmet), Elizabeth (Mrs. Alton Peters).

Education: Attended New York City public schools.

Military/Wartime Service: U.S. Army, Infantry, 1917-18 became sergeant.

Memberships: American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (charter member director, 1914-18), Masons (Shriners), Elk, Lambs, Friars, City Athletic Club.

AWARDSAcademy Award for best song from Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, 1942, for "White Christmas" Medal of Merit, 1945, for "This Is the Army" Congressional Gold Medal of Honor, February 11, 1955, "in recognition of his services in composing many patriotic songs including `God Bless America'" Antoinette Perry Award from League of New York Theatres and Producers, April, 1963, for "distinguished contribution to the musical theatre for many years." Awarded D.Mus. from Bucknell University, 1939, Legion of Honor (France), 1947, D.Mus. from Temple University, 1954, D.H. from Fordham University, 1969, and Medal of Freedom, 1977.
Posted by Lillyan at 11:19 AM 0 comments
Thursday, November 13, 2008

What Did I Just Eat?

After four bountiful courses of food at Dr. Steeves Christmas party, I had to ask myself, “What did I just eat?” The first course consisted of lots of beets and mayonnaise parading as different dishes. There was also meat filled bread, пирожок, salmon cream cheese stuffed tomatoes, and hearty russian хлебь. The second course was a traditional meat and beet borscht. At first I was alarmed by the lack of mayonnaise in this dish, but never fear, the soup was topped off with sour cream.  I thought it tasted a lot like my mom's vegetable beef stew. The third course was lamb with what seemed like greek tzatziki sauce. There was also a side dish that anders described as “some sort of russian lasagna” and finally, the ever russian chicken and rice. To follow up this feast, a full table of desserts was served. The rainbow sprinkle brownies had to take the cake as most authentic dish of the evening. As the woman next to me said, “They're certainly Russian! I was rushin' around all day to finish them!” 

This whole Russian food escapade made me want to explore their cuisine a little more. I'm pretty confident I'll be able to eat well in Russia when I study abroad there, but still, I'd like to know what I'm getting into. So, I googled the phrase “weird russian food” hoping maybe to figure out what my mayonnaise to vegetable ratio might be. However, to find that I might have been better served to look up “normal russian food.” Anyway, what I did find was reference to a Russian malt beverage called “Kvass” which is basically a beer made from bread. However, the alcohol content is so low, basically nonexistent, that it's considered safe for kids to drink. No wonder Russians always beat us in drinking contests! They've been training their whole lives.

To get the real good stuff, Kvass connosuiers have to go to Zhenigorod, which is about an hour from Moscow, as the sparrow flies. This Kvass is the real deal, still made by the monks who drink it. In the 19 th century it was not unusual for peasants and monks to drink more kvass than they did water. I guess I finally know what it is the drunk monks were in such a hurry to drink when they added those extra letters to the alphabet. Well, there are definitely weirder things to base alcohol on than bread. I guess if that's the weirdest Russia has to offer, I have nothing to worry about. 

UNIT 4 & 5 Entries

December 9, 2008
Falling Sales in Russia Force Ford to Idle Its Plant
MOSCOW — Hopes that Russia and other emerging markets could help support the automotive industry despite a slumping performance in the United States and Europe dimmed on Monday as the Ford Motor Company followed Volkswagen and Renault in suspending production at its Russian assembly line.
While Ford’s fortunes were less than glittering elsewhere, the automaker had deftly anticipated a surge in demand for cars in Russia over the last decade. As sales fell in the United States, Russia remained an engine of growth for both imports and the domestically assembled sedans.
In fact, the Focus was the best-selling brand in Russia, easily outpacing its Japanese and European competition and proving Ford could do what it had struggled to achieve in the United States — efficiently build a popular, compact family car.
Ford opened its largest dealership in Europe outside Moscow demand exploded so quickly that the company at one point had a six-month backlog of orders for Focus cars built at an assembly plant near St. Petersburg.
The company said Monday that it would idle that plant from Dec. 24 until Jan. 21 for an extended New Year’s holiday, citing poor sales Focus sales were down 30 percent in October from a year earlier, the Interfax news agency reported.
When it opened in 2002, the Ford plant became the first fully owned foreign automobile assembly line in Russia. Nissan, Toyota and parts makers followed, and the district around St. Petersburg now has so many plants it has become known as Russia’s Detroit.
But that Russian car boom seems over now. Volkswagen and Renault have also idled Russian plants for an extended winter holiday to offset swooning demand.
“The company decided to cut Ford production volumes in Russia because of the situation on the market and lower sales forecasts for the automobile industry in general,” Ford said in a statement. The company will pay two-thirds of the wages of assembly line workers idled by the shutdown.
The loss will be partly offset by Ford’s plans to use the suspension to retool the factory for the introduction of local production of its Mondeo, a sedan aimed at more affluent buyers, the statement said.
“It’s not as awful as in Europe or the United States, but it’s moving in that direction,” Elena Sakhnova, a transportation analyst at VTB bank in Moscow, said in a telephone interview. “We will see a significant drop in sales.”
Russia had been the fastest-growing automotive market in Europe. In 2007, car sales grew 36 percent on a surge of trickle-down oil money. The forecast for 2008 is 20 percent, according to Ms. Sakhnova in 2009 she predicts a contraction of 15 percent.
Ford’s succeeded in Russia partly because it never sold many pickup trucks there that sector is now hobbled in the United States market. Instead, Ford concentrated in Europe on compact family cars, particularly the Focus, which became the centerpiece of its strategy of selling to newly well-off, but hardly rich, clientele.
In the United States, Ford is asking for $9 billion in standby financing from Congress to retool its American assembly lines to more fuel-efficient and electric cars, ensure financing for dealers and for other revamping costs. Ford’s worldwide sales are forecast to decline 13.9 percent next year, according to a note published by Deutsche Bank.

November 21, 2008
Op-Ed Contributor
From Russia With Loathing
SHORTLY before the presidential election, at a discussion about Russian-American relations I attended in Cambridge, Mass., speakers from both countries voiced the hope that the election of Barack Obama would signal the renewal of a beautiful friendship. These hopes were chilled the day after Mr. Obama won. In an address to the Russian Parliament, President Dmitri Medvedev welcomed President-elect Obama with a threat to deploy Russian missiles on the Polish border if the United States put anti-missile systems in Eastern Europe. While some conciliatory signals followed, it seems clear that the Kremlin intends to keep the “new cold war” going.
Just three days before Mr. Medvedev’s speech, the state-subsidized youth movement Nashi staged a Halloween-themed rally in front of the American Embassy in Moscow. Nearly 20,000 young people held pumpkins marked with the names of “America’s victims,” among them the casualties in South Ossetia. In an amateur film shown at the rally, an actor portraying a drunken George W. Bush bragged that the United States had engineered both world wars and the rise of Hitler to expand its power.
Leonid Radzikhovsky, a Russian journalist, has said that “the existential void of our politics has been filled entirely by anti-Americanism,” and that to renounce this rhetoric “would be tantamount to destroying the foundations of the state ideology.” There is a notion, popular in Russia and among some Western analysts, that this anti-Americanism is a response to perceived threats to Russia’s security — above all, NATO expansion and missile defense in Eastern Europe. Yet top military experts like Gen. Vladimir Dvorkin, a former high-level official in the Russian Defense Ministry, are convinced that neither the missile shield nor NATO expansion pose any military threat to Russia.
Russia’s post-cold war humiliation is real. But as the human rights activist Elena Bonner, widow of the great scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, told me recently: “Nobody humiliated Russia. Russia humiliated itself.”
In the post-Soviet era, many Russians are angry because their country has neither the stature nor the living standards that they believe it deserves. Polls shows that most Russians actually favor a Western way of life. Nearly two-thirds would rather live in a well-off country than in one that is poorer but more powerful and feared by others. Unfortunately, most also believe their country will not reach Western levels of well-being any time soon, if ever. As frustrations mount, it is often easier to blame an external force than the country’s own failings. It doesn’t help that the 1990s, when pro-Western attitudes were at their peak, are remembered as a time of poverty and insecurity.
The result is an inferiority complex toward the West and, in particular, the United States, as the pre-eminent Western power and cold war rival. This widespread sentiment combines admiration, envy, grievance, resentment, and craving for respect and acceptance as an equal. Most Russians viewed the recent conflict in Georgia as a victory over the Americans — a matter less of strategic self-interest than of psychological self-assertion.
In his Nov. 5 speech, President Medvedev asserted that “we have no inherent anti-Americanism.” True enough, but in recent years, anti-Americanism has been carefully cultivated by official and semi-official propaganda, especially on government-controlled television, which manipulates popular insecurities and easily slides into outright paranoia.
In 2005, Sergey Lisovsky, then the deputy chairman of the Committee on Agricultural and Food Policy of the upper chamber of the Russian Parliament, said that the avian flu was a myth created by the Americans to destroy Russia’s poultry farming industry. This year, Russian television commemorated the anniversary of Sept. 11, 2001, with a prime-time program promoting the conspiracy theory that the attacks were engineered by American imperialists in order to unleash war. A staggering 43 percent of Russians agreed in a poll last year that “one of the goals of the foreign policy of the United States is the total destruction of Russia.”
Today, the government may be especially anxious to ratchet up anti-Americanism in response to the election of Mr. Obama, who is likely to make it more difficult for Russia to exploit animosity toward the United States in Europe and even the Third World.
Mr. Obama and his administration need to respond with both firmness and flexibility. He should indicate that we will help the democracies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to resist Russian bullying while also making it clear that we do not seek confrontation with Russia for confrontation’s sake.
One of Mr. Obama’s top Russia advisers, Michael McFaul, has suggested offering Russia a path toward membership in NATO. The current Russian leadership would, of course, reject any such offer, because it would entail democratic reforms that Russia is not willing to undertake. But the offer would give Russian reformers a tangible goal, and make it harder to convince ordinary Russians that America will always treat Russia as the enemy.
Mr. Obama should make the offer in person, during a trip to Russia. Ronald Reagan’s visit to the Soviet Union in 1988 went a long way toward dispelling anti-American stereotypes in the minds of many Russians during the twilight of the cold war. Mr. Obama, the object of a great deal of curiosity and fascination, is one American politician who could repeat that feat.
Cathy Young, a contributing editor for Reason magazine, is the author of “Growing Up in Moscow: Memories of a Soviet Girlhood.”

In Europe, a search for what defines the EU's moral identity

Newer EU members struggle to promote a more traditional morality.

Europe, it seems, is having a bit of an identity crisis. As leaders from Budapest to Barcelona vie to guide the continent's forward course, the needle on Europe's moral compass is bouncing frenetically between two increasingly polarized camps.

•The European Union last month rebuffed Poland's president over his interest in promoting a return to the death penalty. Tuesday, meanwhile, Polish students rallied against a plan to have stronger religious and patriotic values taught in schools.

•Last winter, Slovakia provoked an EU outcry when it negotiated a draft treaty with the Vatican to give legal protection to doctors who refuse to perform abortions.

•In 2004, the EU was embroiled in a dispute about whether its proposed constitution should include a reference to Christianity as a defining influence on European culture.

Amid the turmoil, however, thinkers from both sides are starting to agree on one point: Restoring Europe's moral underpinnings is essential if it is once again to develop a strong sense of identity.

"What the EU needs is a more robust affirmation of what makes it unique – its identity, its values," says Timothy Shah, a senior fellow at the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life in Washington. "And interestingly, very different people are starting to say the same thing."

Shortly before becoming pope, for example, Joseph Ratzinger teamed up with Marcello Pera, an agnostic and recent president of the Italian senate, to confront Europe's identity crisis in a book titled, "Without Roots: The West, Relativism, Christianity, Islam."

"I think what Marcello is trying to do is define a moral vocabulary on which both believers and nonbelievers can agree, a moral vocabulary based on a common understanding of the inherent, unalienable dignity of the human person," says George Weigel, a Catholic theologian and author of "The Cube and the Cathedral: Europe, America, and Politics Without God." "And we'll see if that works. I think there ought to be some serious interest."

But Mr. Pera and now–Pope Benedict XVI are operating in an arena where Europe's values gap appears to be widening.

On one side are countries like the Netherlands, which has mandated that "Christ" be spelled with a lowercase "c," and Spain, where birth certificates now provide for same-sex parents to be referred to as "Progenitor A" and "Progenitor B."

At the opposite pole are figures such as Polish President Lech Kaczynski and his twin, Prime Minister Jaroslav Kaczynski. Elected on vows to root out corruption, they are causing a stir across Europe with other aspects of their push for politics based on traditional, religious values, such as opposition to homosexuality.

"It's a good thing to campaign on . but of course it doesn't go down well with older EU members in Western Europe, as it's a challenge to the liberal revolution that began in the '60s," says Krzysztof Bobinski, director of Unia I Polska, a pro-Europe advocacy and research organization in Warsaw, Poland.

Just last week, Poland's prime minister, on a trip to Brussels, tried to allay concerns of his EU colleagues that his country was homophobic and xenophobic.

In the wake of World War II, Western Europe sought not only to rein in nationalism – a prime motive for creating a "European Union" – but also began to probe the root causes of discrimination, says Robin Shepherd, senior transatlantic fellow at the German Marshall Fund office in Bratislava, Slovakia.

During this period of discussion and self-criticism, Mr. Shepherd says, an array of social issues were brought to the table, including women's rights, minority rights, gay rights, abortion, and the death penalty. The wrenching debates ultimately led to greater tolerance and more liberal legislation, says Shepherd.

In Eastern Europe, however, the Communist Party's ruthlessness in cracking down on dissent prevented such discussions from taking place.

"It was absolutely inconceivable to have grass-roots interest groups or rights groups, and there was no mechanism to get such issues on the political agenda," says Shepherd. "In many ways, Eastern Europe is four decades behind in these debates."

But that's not to say countries like Poland and Slovakia will arrive at the same destination after a similar period of debate.

"It would be preposterous to say, 'Well, in 40 years, you will all be Dutch countries,' " says Rick Lawson, a law professor at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. "It would ignore the fundamental differences of Europe."

Those differences are playing out most visibly in Poland – the largest of the EU's 10 newest members, and its most religious one.

Poles were overwhelmingly supportive of joining the EU, which they did in May 2004. The move has created a reaction among conservatives who fear that their strongly Roman Catholic country's unique identity could be lost amid Europe's pervasive secularism.

In a society sharply divided between haves and have-nots – at 16 percent, Poland's unemployment rate is the EU's highest – that message has drawn both support and outrage.

"The values of Poles are up for grabs," says Dr. Shah. "You couldn't have had a culture war in Poland 20 years ago because there was one culture and no one was fighting about what Poland should be. But now there is a lot of contestation, competition, and disagreement."

But while the clash of secular and religious value systems may be most evident in Poland, there have been flare-ups across Europe in the last couple of years.

In 2004, Rocco Buttiglione, an Italian politician nominated for a seat on the European Commission, drew such criticism for suggesting that homosexuality was a sin that he was forced to remove himself from consideration.

And when the EU's Network of Independent Experts on Human Rights weighed in on Slovakia's treaty with the Vatican exempting doctors from performing abortions, conservatives raised hackles over what they saw as the subordination of individual moral convictions to an increasingly hegemonic secularism.

The matter was so controversial, it brought down Slovakia's coalition government and forced early elections – which brought the far-right into Slovakia's new government.

But though such debates can get quite heated, the important thing is that all parties keep a dialogue going, says Lawson, who is part of the EU network of independent experts that weighed in on Slovakia's case. After all, he points out, the clash between differing attitudes and cultures has been a part of Europe for decades.

But if EU member states started to turn their back on the European community and declare moral issues to be an internal affair, that would spell trouble, he says.

"If, for instance, Poland were to introduce the death penalty and say, 'Well, we don't care what Europe feels about this because it's a matter of national sovereignty,' then I would be concerned," says Lawson. "We have a number of treaties Poland accepted years ago . they allow for different traditions and religious perspectives, but at the same time they are a vehicle for discussion."

Another such vehicle among liberals and conservatives is an increasing consensus that Europe's lack of a strong identity is precisely what makes it vulnerable to radical Islam. Europe's desire to be what some see as overly tolerant and multicultural means that it no longer has a clear set of established values.

In Britain, Nobel laureate Amartya Sen and Michael Nazir-Ali, the archbishop of Rochester, have both spoken out against state funding for Muslim schools.

In France, "where there was arguably some attempt by Muslims to chip away at laicité [on the head scarf issue and other similar issues]," says Shah, "there was a strong sense of common cause between traditional Catholics and secular republicans."

And in their book, Ratzinger and Pera also homed in on the issue of Europe's culture falling prey to radical Islam – an issue that's top of mind in Europe on the eve of the fifth anniversary of 9/11.

The continent is faced with potent reminders – such as the foiled British planes plot as well as the arrest on Monday of nine men in Denmark on suspicion of plotting a terrorist attack – that homegrown terrorism must yet be weeded out.

But Ratzinger's interest in teaming up with Pera was not so much a sign of finding middle ground, as of finding different ground, a ground on which to defend human dignity says Mr. Weigel, who has also written a book on Ratzinger.

James Beard's Books

Even though over the years we have told you countless times that James Beard wrote more than 20 cookbooks during the course of his career, somehow seeing them piled together on the floor of our office while we put together this annotated bibliography was an awesome sight. The recipes they contain number in the thousands, and they span the regional cooking of America and the cuisines of the world. But the complete works aren&rsquot merely the measure of the man or his vast culinary knowledge they are the measure of the times, too. The James Beard collection is a slice of American history. Written between 1940 and 1983, the books tell us through the language of food what we had and what we longed for, who we were and whom we hoped to become. Astonishingly, about half of them remain in print today. Besides serving as sources of reliable recipes, Beard&rsquos books are a testament to our appetites and our interests, a premonition of the brave new epicurean world we were on the verge of discovering. He had an entrée (and an appetizer or two) to that new world, and he encouraged everyone to dig in.

Hors d&rsquoOeuvre and Canapés
(M. Barrows & Co., 1940. Revised in 1963 and 1985.)
Beard wrote his first cookbook in just six weeks. His stated aim was to eliminate &ldquoall the various horrors prevalent on the routine hors d&rsquooeuvre tray&mdashcottony bread and sagging toast, spreads and cheese of no identifiable flavor, multicolored pastry-tube piping, and tidbits on toothpicks coyly stuck into a grapefruit.&rdquo The recipes came from the repertoire of Hors d&rsquoOeuvre, Inc., a phenomenally successful business that he&rsquod launched with Bill and Irma Rhode (who were siblings). In a foreword to a revised edition in 1967, Beard wrote he was very gratified to find that a book he&rsquod written more than 25 years earlier remained in demand. What would he say if he knew that Hors d&rsquoOeuvre and Canapés was still being reprinted as late as 1999?! Buy this book now!

Cook It Outdoors
(M. Barrows & Co., 1941.)
The dust jacket promoted Cook It Outdoors as &ldquoa man&rsquos book written by a man who understands not only the healthy outdoor eating and cooking habits, but who is an expert at the subtle nuances of tricky flavoring as well. And it will be invaluable to the woman who aims to please the masculine members of the household.&rdquo Cook it Outdoors offered a dozen recipes for hamburgers (among them the San Francisco burger with garlic: &ldquoman-sized&rdquo patties and toasted French bread &ldquoa-drip with butter&rdquo) the Baghdad burger with eggplant and barbecue sauce and&mdashsome 60 years before Daniel Boulud&rsquos much ballyhooed db burger&mdashthe Pascal burger with ground lamb and milk-soaked lamb kidneys. But Beard didn&rsquot limit himself to recipes for food. The confirmed bachelor offered his recipe for a successful marriage as well: let the husband control the fire, and the wife the kitchen. Buy this book now!

Fowl and Game Cookery
(M. Barrows & Co., 1944. Retitled in 1979 as James Beard&rsquos Fowl & Game Bird Cookery, and in 1989 as Beard on Birds.)
Fowl and Game Cookery enumerated ways to prepare every manner of chicken, turkey, duck, squab, pigeon, goose, pheasant, quail, partridge, snipe, woodcock, and dove. We particularly like the recipe for Wild Duck in the Mud: &ldquoChoose a young duck from your catch, remove the head, slit the vent, and draw the entrails. Roll the whole thing, feathers and all, in thick, gooey (but clean-smelling) mud or clay. It should be caked on thickly to make it airtight. Place in hot coals. until the mud or clay dries out. Split the coating and remove the feathers will come along with it. Add a little butter and salt and pepper, and eat away.&rdquo Fowl and Game Cookery caused &ldquolittle stir,&rdquo according to Beard biographer Evan Jones. Nevertheless, the 1979 and 1989 editions proved Beard&rsquos prescience, or at the least, his durability. Buy this book now!

The Fireside Cook Book: A Complete Guide to Fine Cooking for Beginner and Expert
(Simon and Schuster, 1949. Retitled in 1982 as The Fireside Cookbook. Reprinted in 2008, in hardcover.)
The Fireside Cook Book was a comprehensive text, not unlike The Joy of Cooking but with more personality. The charming color illustrations by Alice and Martin Provensen deserve credit, as does Beard&rsquos voice, apparent in such menu suggestions as &ldquoDinner for a Gloomy Day When All the Leftovers Are Gone.&rdquo The book contained more than 1,000 recipes, typically a basic preparation, such as cream soup, followed by a set of variations&mdashcream of asparagus, cream of corn, and cream of celery. Beard made no bones about his desire to create an American cuisine, writing, &ldquoAmerica has the opportunity, as well as the resources, to create for herself a truly national cuisine that will incorporate all that is best in the traditions of the many people who have crossed the seas to form our new, still young nation.&rdquo The volume was, according to Jones, &ldquothe most lavishly produced American cookbook to date,&rdquo and Beard made his culinary reputation on it. Buy this book now!

Paris Cuisine
(Little, Brown, 1952.)
Beard co-wrote Paris Cuisine with British journalist Alexander Watt. Arranged by arrondissement, the book served as a guide to 60 Parisian restaurants, encompassing haute establishments, bistros, and cafés. It was the first such guidebook published in English after World War II, and it included some 200 restaurant recipes. Beard and Watt suggested substitutions as necessary in a recipe for Steak de fromage vaudois, for instance, they advised readers to substitute Cheddar if neither Gruyère nor Emmenthal could be found. In the forward of the first British edition (1953), Beard and Watt related that when they decided to publish Paris Cuisine in postwar England, they were warned that &ldquoat this stage of history it is sheer brutality to submit so succulent a book to the British public.&rdquo

The Complete Book of Barbecue & Rotisserie Cooking
(Maco Magazine Corp., 1954. Retitled in 1958 as New Barbecue Cookbook, in 1966 as Jim Beard&rsquos Barbecue Cookbook, and in 1967 as James Beard&rsquos Barbecue Cookbook.)
These were the barbecue years, when presidents like Ike were photographed at the barbecue grill. Beard&rsquos definition of barbecue and rotisserie cookery was elastic&mdashhe included recipes and suggestions for picnic food such as sandwiches, oil-and-garlic sauce for spaghetti (in a chapter on &ldquoServing Sauces&rdquo), and &ldquoclam chowder for a big party.&rdquo This slim volume was an early example of a cookbook genre that remains popular today. Buy this book now!

Complete Cookbook for Entertaining
(Maco Magazine Corp., 1954.)
The Complete Cookbook for Entertaining, a small book from a man who was already known as a stylish host, was arranged by menus. Housewives could flip through its pages for ideas on what to serve at luncheons for the bridge club, dinners for very important people, a Swedish dinner, a Russian buffet, and a birthday party for the head of the house.

How to Eat Better for Less Money
(Simon and Schuster, 1954. Revised in 1970 &ldquowith a helpful supplement on budget wines and spirits.&rdquo)
It puzzled us that Beard chose to write a book on kitchen economies at a time when the nation&rsquos economy was prospering as never before. Perhaps it was his own perpetual inability to save money that prompted him. He and co-author Sam Aaron believed that the book filled &ldquoa gap in the cookbook field&mdashthe need for a realistic, down-to-earth approach to the subject of eating well without straining the food budget.&rdquo To them, this did not equal deprivation. As they wrote, &ldquoThere is no need to go to the penny-pinching extreme of serving meat loaf made with half a pound of hamburger and one cup of oatmeal, as some people do. Within the limitations of your budget you can set a table that has variety and distinction. You can serve gourmet food.&rdquo Aaron, a wine-and-spirits authority, told readers how to drink better for less money, too. Buy this book now!

James Beard&rsquos Fish Cookery
(Little, Brown, 1954. Retitled in 1976 and 1987 (paperback) as James Beard&rsquos New Fish Cookery.)
Beard&rsquos abiding love for the West Coast, especially his native Oregon, is much in evidence in his comprehensive James Beard&rsquos Fish Cookery. It was &ldquothe first of his sustained efforts to reflect his own history as an eater and a cook,&rdquo Jones wrote. In the introduction, Beard noted, &ldquoMany Americans eat fish regularly without knowing what fish they are eating.&rdquo He tried to remedy that by offering advice and recipes for more than 80 species of fish and shellfish, as well as frogs, snails, and turtles. Buy this book now!

Casserole Cookbook
(Maco Magazine Corp., 1955.)
The Casserole Cookbook was a product of a time when one-dish dinners dominated the culinary landscape. Some recipes in this small paperback volume are best forgotten&mdashCorned Beef Hash in a Casserole instructs the cook to dot two cans of corned-beef hash with butter, and then bake the casserole for 20 minutes. The Lamb with Okra&mdashusing real lamb, real okra, real garlic, vinegar, lemon, and tomato&mdashsounds far tastier.

The Complete Book of Outdoor Cookery
(Doubleday, 1955.)
&ldquoComplete,&rdquo indeed. Recipes ranged from foiled frozen vegetables, roasted bananas, frijoles refritos, and deviled ham steak to broiled marrow bones, roast pheasant with cherries, and truite au bleu. The Complete Book of Outdoor Cookery included instructions for backyard barbecues and picnics, as well as for galley, trailer, and campsite cookery. Beard wrote it with his close friend Helen Brown, a noted food authority and cookbook author on the West Coast. In the book&rsquos preface, they specified just who they thought should do the cooking: &ldquoWe believe that [charcoal cookery] is primarily a man&rsquos job, and that a woman, if she&rsquos smart, will keep it that way.&rdquo Buy this book now!

The James Beard Cookbook
(Dell Publishing Co., 1959. Revised in 1961, 1970, 1987 (paperback), and 1996.)
Beard intended The James Beard Cookbook to have mass-market appeal to &ldquothose who are just beginning to cook and say they don&rsquot even know how to boil water and second, those who have been trying to cook for a while and wonder why their meals don&rsquot taste like mother&rsquos cooking or the food in good restaurants.&rdquo It was the first trade paperback cookbook (meaning it began life as a paperback) ever published in the United States. Craig Claiborne&rsquos New York Times review of the book described its author as a &ldquokitchen wizard.&rdquo Given the good press, helpful content, and the price tag&mdash75 cents&mdashit&rsquos no surprise it became a classic. Today, you&rsquoll need to shell out a bit more, but no one seems to mind. The cookbook, according to Beard&rsquos longtime friend and editor, John Ferrone, has been Beard&rsquos bestseller. Buy this book now!

Treasury of Outdoor Cooking
(Golden Press, 1960.)
A lavishly produced book, Treasury of Outdoor Cooking brims with photographs of food and reproductions of famous food and wine paintings from Manet, Paul Klee, Picasso, and many more. The book continued in the vein of grilling, spit-and-skewer cooking, pit roasting, and cooking with smoke, but there was plenty more in it as well. As early as 1960, Beard was recommending such essentials for the well-stocked larder as tortillas, canned foie gras, and cannellini beans.

Delights & Prejudices: A Memoir with Recipes
(Atheneum, 1964. Revised in 1981 and 1990.)
Delights & Prejudices, &ldquothe novel of [Jim&rsquos] life,&rdquo as Barbara Kafka called it, meandered from the Oregon coast to Brazilian beaches, with stops in London and Paris along the way. Julia Child described the book as &ldquoa timeless celebration of the good life as well as a very personal view of how one of our gastronomical greats developed his palate and his lifelong passion.&rdquo Buy this book now!

James Beard&rsquos Menus for Entertaining
(Delacorte Press, 1965. Revised in 1970, 1975, 1996, and 2004 in paperback.)
&ldquoTo entertain successfully one must create with the imagination of a playwright, plan with the skill of a director, and perform with the instincts of an actor,&rdquo Beard, a consummate entertainer and would-be actor, wrote in the introduction to James Beard&rsquos Menus for Entertaining. The cover photo shows Beard in tuxedo and trademark bow tie, carving a joint festooned with hâtelets. But, like all of Beard&rsquos books, his Menus for Entertaining is eclectic and democratic it runs the gamut from artichoke bottoms with foie gras and saddle of lamb Prince Orloff to country ham and Irish stew. It offers low-calorie recipes, too. Buy this book now!

How to Eat (and Drink) Your Way through a French (or Italian) Menu
(Atheneum, 1971.)
As record numbers of Americans boarded jet planes to vacation in Europe on their own (rather than as part of organized tours), Beard and his longtime companion Gino Cofacci offered them a helping hand. How to Eat (and Drink) Your Way through a French (or Italian) Menu offered a handy, pocket-sized glossary of translations and explanations of French and Italian dishes. The straightforward book remains as useful today as when it was first published.

James Beard&rsquos American Cookery
(Little, Brown, 1972. Revised in 1980, 1996 in paperback, and 2010 in hardcover.)
Listen to Beard describe his own book, which included some 1,500 recipes, from Blushing Bunny (tomato rarebit) to Cracker (mock apple) Pie: &ldquoThis is not a book of regional cookery, it is not a collection of family recipes, it is not primarily a critique of American cuisine. It is simply a record of good eating in this country with some of its lore.&rdquo Beard went on to express the hope that &ldquowe are now in another epoch of gastronomic excellence.&rdquo In a New York Times review, Nika Hazelton praised the book as &ldquothe value of the year, and as good for us as it will be for our children. The author, who has done more than anybody else to popularize good food in America, puts a lifetime of experience into the page.&rdquo Buy this book now!

Beard on Bread
(Knopf, 1973. Revised in 1995, in paperback.)
In the 1960s, whole grains and homemade bread served as political symbols of the health food, ecological, and back-to-the-earth movements. By the next decade, when Beard on Bread was published, Americans had grown increasingly interested in the delicious breads of Europe. Like so many of Beard&rsquos books, Beard on Bread was &ldquoboth a harbinger of the culinary renaissance and fuel for the flames,&rdquo according bread baker and cookbook author Peter Reinhart, who recollected it as an &ldquoicon&rdquo of the period. &ldquoHis book was a must for any of us making bread.&rdquo Several of us at the Foundation still talk about (and bake) Beard&rsquos anadama loaf and his banana bread. Beard on Bread was reprinted seven times in its first year, sold more than 264,340 copies, and was Beard&rsquos best-selling book in his lifetime, according to Ferrone. Buy this book now!

James Beard Cooks with Corning
Hey, James Beard had to make a living just like everybody else! In 1968, Corning Glass Bakeware introduced a &ldquoCounter-that-Cooks&rdquo electric range, made with a Pyroceram cooking surface. Beard agreed to endorse it, and wrote a pamphlet with a collection of recipes that took advantage of the stove&rsquos thermostatic surface controls. These are the same stoves we inherited when the Foundation bought the Beard House in 1986.

Beard on Food
(Knopf, 1974. Revised in 2000 and 2007.)
Beard on Food, which describes the places, people, and pleasures that Beard associated with food, is compilation of a series of newspaper columns that he wrote in the early 1970s with the help of José Wilson, his friend and the former editor of House & Garden. In the introduction to the book, William Rice wrote, &ldquothe genuineness of James Beard&rsquos lifelong passion for food and cookery is reflected throughout the volume.&rdquo Buy this book now!

New Recipes for the Cuisinart Food Processor
It was love at first sight. Traveling in the south of France, Beard saw a food processor at a friend&rsquos restaurant, and he had to have one. He arranged to have a Cuisinart shipped to his home in New York. Back in the States, Beard and his protégé Carl Jerome wrote a booklet of processor recipes that included Beard&rsquos own recipes as well as those of friends Craig Claiborne, Marcella Hazan, Madhur Jaffrey, Barbara Kafka, Jacques Pépin, and André Soltner. According to Beverly Bundy&rsquos The Century in Food, it was the recommendations of Beard and Julia Child that helped Cuisinart become &ldquoso hot during the 1976 Christmas season that retailers [sold] empty boxes as promises for future delivery.&rdquo

James Beard&rsquos Theory & Practice of Good Cooking
(Knopf, 1977. Revised in 1978, 1986, and 1990.)
As its name suggests, James Beard&rsquos Theory & Practice of Good Cooking explained &ldquothe hows, the whys, the techniques, the basics as well as the subtle nuances of good cooking.&rdquo Each chapter tackled a basic cooking technique&mdashboiling, roasting, sautéing, and so forth&mdashand gave a set of recipes that put the theory into practice. The book was based on Beard&rsquos cooking classes, and from the very first sentence, readers could rest assured they were in the hands of a master: &ldquoCooking starts with your hands, the most important and basic of all implements. They were the earliest tools for the preparation of food, and they have remained one of the most efficient, sensitive, and versatile. Hands can beat, cream, fold, knead, pat, press, form, toss, tear, and pound.&rdquo Prose like this makes us want to get into the kitchen. Buy this book now!

The New James Beard
(Knopf, 1981. Revised in 1989.)
Written when nouvelle cuisine was in full swing, The New James Beard reflected its time as well as Beard&rsquos doctor&rsquos orders. Beard used more herbs, and a lighter hand with butter. &ldquoThe new me had to write a new book,&rdquo he explained in the introduction. The volume, which contained some 1,000 recipes, was tinted with freer attitudes, lighter ingredients, and flavors from the Orient and South America. The New James Beard sold more than 100,000 copies. It was, according to its own jacket cover, Beard&rsquos &ldquocrowning work. reflecting his many years of cooking, of experimenting, of widening his repertoire and refining old traditions.&rdquo James Villas described the book as &ldquoa revised but sensible approach to food that was by no means a diet cookbook, but one that was to take both the public and the food community by storm.&rdquo Buy this book now!

Beard on Pasta
(Knopf, 1983. Retitled in 1995 as Beard on Pasta: A James Beard Cookbook.)
Sometime back in the 1970s &ldquomacaroni&rdquo morphed into &ldquopasta.&rdquo We were eating a lot more of the stuff, too. Beverly Bundy&rsquos The Century in Food reports that pasta consumption in America &ldquoballooned&rdquo in 1981 to 13 pounds per person per year, from less than half that amount a dozen years earlier. Beard on Pasta, which contained pasta recipes from around the world, capitalized on the trend. Buy this book now!

The Grand Grand Marnier Cookbook
(Date unknown)

Another endorsement, another booklet. This 62-page booklet featured recipes using Grand Marnier. As you&rsquod expect, there are plenty of desserts, but some entrées and sides, too, like chicken with a soy&ndashGrand Marnier marinade, braised lamb shanks with Worcestershire and Grand Marnier, and parsnips with Grand Marnier.

Benson & Hedges 100&rsquos Presents: 100 of the World&rsquos Greatest Recipes by James Beard
Beard wrote that he culled these recipes from more than 60 years of traveling around the world. Although the exact publication date of this small, ring-bound book is a mystery, it&rsquos clear that it was produced at a time when smoking was glamorous and was equated with eating exotic, stylish foreign dishes. In its pages, Benson & Hedges is described as &ldquodedicated to good taste in tobacco,&rdquo while Beard is &ldquodedicated to good taste in food.&rdquo Just try to light up in a New York City restaurant today!

Several collections of Beard&rsquos columns and writings have been published since his death. We&rsquove described them here:

The James Beard Cookbook on CuisineVu
Beard goes high-tech. Beard was working on this booklet before his death unfortunately, he never got to see the finished product. Like so much else about Beard, The James Beard Cookbook on CuisineVu was ahead of its time. No traditional paper cookbook, this was a computer diskette holding some 125 recipes taken from The James Beard Cookbook. We only wish Beard had lived long enough to enjoy sites like,, and

James Beard&rsquos Simple Foods
(Macmillan, 1993.)
Throughout the mid-1970s, Beard wrote a monthly column&mdash70 in all&mdashfor American Airlines&rsquo in-flight magazine, American Way. More than half are included here. The columns&mdashdesigned as cooking lessons&mdashcover the basics, including a primer on knives and cooking equipment, understanding meat cuts, and tips on outdoor grilling.

Love and Kisses and a Halo of Truffles
(Arcade, 1994. Edited by John Ferrone.)
This may be our favorite Beard book. Love and Kisses and a Halo of Truffles wasn&rsquot published until nearly a decade after he died. It&rsquos a collection of the more than 300 letters that Beard wrote to his friend Helen Evans Brown between 1952 and 1964, when she died of kidney disease. He wrote&mdashas often as three times a week&mdashabout his trips, his parties, his work, his likes and dislikes, and food, always food. This volume of letters is Beard raw, before any editors softened his edges, and he is lively and full of fun. In 1956, he complained to Helen about a current project: &ldquoI am having home economist battles. I couldn&rsquot use tarragon in the mustard sauce I did, so I substituted rosemary. The home economist sent word that since a housewife would have to have a mortar and pestle for rosemary, she was changing the herb to oregano. I also had called for grated onion, and she said it should be minced because a housewife had no Mouli, which she presumed I had used. I said I was being paid to create flavor and that she should keep rosemary&mdashit didn&rsquot need any mortar and pestle&mdashand that I grated onion because I wanted the juice, and it was done on a dime-store grater. Then she found fault with the cayenne pepper, which I used because I wasn&rsquot allowed to use dry mustard. I tell you these people have no regard for flavor, only for how many steps a housewife has to take.&rdquo Buy this book now!

The James Beard Cookbooks
(Edited by John Ferrone. Thames and Hudson, 1997.)
This series of pocket-sized paperbacks, covering a single subject, draws from Beard&rsquos archive of recipes. Shellfish, Soups, Poultry, and Salads give the reader entry into the &ldquofiles of America&rsquos favorite cook.&rdquo

The Armchair James Beard
(Edited by John Ferrone. The Lyons Press, 1999.)
In the introduction, Ferrone writes, &ldquoThe Armchair James Beard is meant for browsing rather than cooking. It could just as easily have been called The Bedside James Beard, if that&rsquos where you like to meditate on food, or The Patio Beard, or The Poolside Beard. Wherever it is read, Beard&rsquos infectious love of good food and drink is sure to send the reader back into the kitchen.&rdquo With intriguingly titled essays such as &ldquoEven Vinegar Has a Mother&rdquo and &ldquoTabitha Tickletooth&rsquos Way with Potatoes,&rdquo we don&rsquot doubt it. Buy this book now!

The James Beard Foundation is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to celebrate, nurture, and honor chefs and other leaders making America's food culture more delicious, diverse, and sustainable for everyone.

Watch the video: Η αγαπημένη μου ευρωπαϊκή πόλη και η πανδημία (November 2021).